- Marina Management
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Protect Petroleum Storage Tanks
Check with your state rules on aboveground or underground storage tanks. Storage tanks holding 1500 gallons of diesel or 1400 gallons of gas must file Emergency Planning & Community Right to Know Act Tier II reports annually. Check with your state for online filing options.
Install double-walled or vaulted fuel tanks with aboveground piping. Tanks should meet the following conditions (NFPA 30):
- The capacity of the tank shall not exceed 12,000 gal (45,420 L).
- All piping connections to the tank shall be made above the normal maximum liquid level.
- Means shall be provided to prevent the release of liquid from the tank by siphon flow.
- Means shall be provided for determining the level of the liquid in the tank. This means shall be accessible to the delivery operator.
- Means shall be provided to prevent overfilling by sounding an alarm when the liquid level in the tank reaches 90 percent of capacity and by automatically stopping delivery of liquid to the tank when the liquid level in the tank reaches 95 percent of capacity. In no case shall these provisions restrict or interfere with the proper functioning of the normal or emergency vent.
- Spacing between adjacent tanks shall be not less than 3 feet (0.9 m).
- The tank shall be capable of resisting the damage from impact of a motor vehicle or suitable collision barriers shall be provided.
- Where the interstitial space is enclosed, it shall be provided with emergency venting.
- Locate above ground fuel tanks within a dike or over an impervious storage area with containment volumes equal to 1.1 times the capacity of the storage tank (s).
- Design containment areas with spigots to drain collected materials.
- Cover the tank with a roof to prevent rainwater from filling the containment area.
- Inspect tanks and piping regularly.
Waves and Wakes
- Locate fuel docks in protected areas. For safety reasons, all fueling stations should be accessible by boat without entering or passing through the main berthing area.
- Provide a stable platform for fueling personal watercraft (PWC):
- Prefabricated drive-on docks.
- Modify an existing dock by cutting a v-shaped berth and covering it with outdoor carpeting.
- Place the PWC fueling area at the end of the fuel pier to reduce conflict with larger boats.
Maintain Fuel Transfer Equipment
- Inspect and maintain transfer equipment and hoses in good working order. Replace hoses, pipes, and tanks before they leak.
- Hard connect delivery nozzles.
- Hang nozzles vertically when not in use so that fuel remaining in hoses does not drain out.
Environmental Controls at the Pump
- Do not install holding clips for gas nozzles.
- Install automatic back-pressure shut-off nozzles on fuel pump discharge hoses to automatically stop the flow of fuel into a boat’s fuel tank when sufficient reverse pressure is created.
- Maintain a supply of clearly marked, easily accessible oil absorbent pads and pillows at the fuel dock to mop up spills on the dock and on the water.
- Place plastic or nonferrous drip trays lined with oil absorbent material beneath fuel connections at the dock to prevent fuel leaks from reaching the water.
- Post instructions at the fuel dock directing staff and patrons to immediately remove spilled fuel from the dock and water with oil absorbent material. Indicate the location of the absorbents.
- Install breakaway fittings to prevent drive-offs or accidental/ violent disconnects.
- Consider installing fuel nozzles that redirect blow-back into vessels, fuel tanks or vapor control nozzles to capture fumes.
- Place small gas cans in oil-absorbent lined drip pans when filling.
- Secure oil-absorbent material at the waterline of fuel docks to quickly capture small spills. Look for oilabsorbent booms that are sturdy enough to stand up to regular contact with the dock and boats.
- Offer your services to install fuel/air separators on boats.
Supervise Fueling: Environmental Recommendations
- Train employees to clarify what the boater is asking for—gasoline or diesel
- Attach a container to the external vent fitting to collect overflow. There are products on the market that may be attached to the hull with suction cups. A rubber seal on the container fits over the fuel vent allowing the overflow to enter the container.
- Require boaters to stay with their craft during fueling.
- Instruct fuel dock personnel and boaters to listen to filler pipes to anticipate when tanks are nearly full.
- Instruct boaters to slow down at the beginning and end of fueling.
- Train employees to hand boaters absorbent pads with the fuel nozzles. Request that the boaters use them to capture backsplash and vent line overflow.
Supervise Fueling: Safety Recommendations
- Always have a trained employee at the fuel dock to oversee or assist with fueling.
- Remind boaters that gasoline vapors are heavier than air; they will settle in a boat’s lower areas.
- Require all passengers to get off gasoline-powered vessels before fueling.
- Turn down the pressure on the fuel dispenser. Problems with backsplash and vent-line overflow are often due to the high-pressure flow of fuel from the pump.
- Ask your fuel company representative to reduce the pressure to a delivery rate of 10 gallons per minuteespecially if you cater to small boats – or use a lower pressure sub-unit to lower pressure.
- Instruct boaters to:
- Stop all engines and auxiliaries;
- Shut off all electricity, open flames, and heat sources and cell phones;
- Extinguish all cigarettes, cigars, and pipes;
- Close all doors, hatches, and ports;
- Maintain nozzle contact with the fill pipe to prevent static spark;
- Inspect bilge after fueling for leakage or fuel odors ventilate all compartments after fueling until fumes are gone
- Train dock staff to carefully observe fueling practices; make sure fuel is not accidentally put in the \ holding tank, the water tank, or a rod holder.
Provide an Oil/Water Separator
- Invest in a portable or stationary oil/water separator to draw contaminated water from bilges, capture hydrocarbons in a filter, and discharge clean water.
Offer Spill-proof Oil Changes
- Purchase a non-spill pump system to draw crankcase oils out through the dipstick tube. Use the system in the boat shop and rent it to boaters who perform their own oil changes.
- Slip a plastic bag over used oil filters prior to their removal to capture any drips. Hot drain the filter by punching a hole in the dome end and draining for 24 hours. Recycle the oil and the metal canister if possible.
- Have basic oil-absorbent materials on-site and consider distributing pads, pillows and booms to tenants and requiring their use in lease agreements.
- Oil-absorbent boom types:
- Captures oil from the bilge and solidifies into a hard rubber bumper.
- Contains microbes that digest petroleum converting it to carbon dioxide and water. (Because the microbes take 2 to 3 weeks to digest a given input of oil, it is not appropriate to use these types of products for a spill of any significant size).
- Constructed out of oil-absorbent polypropylene fabric and filled with dehydrated microbes that digest the petroleum. Threats associated with free-floating petroleum are thereby minimized.
- Disposal methods for used oil-absorbent material (check with your state as some states have stricter disposal guidelines):
- Standard absorbents that are saturated with gasoline may be air dried and reused.
- Standard absorbents saturated with oil or diesel may be wrung out over oil recycling bins (if they are saturated with oil and diesel only!) and reused or double bagged – one plastic bag sealed inside of another – and tossed in your regular trash.
- Bioremediating bilge booms may be disposed in your regular trash as long as they are not dripping any liquid. Because microbes need oxygen to function, do not seal them in plastic bags.
- Encourage the use of spill-proof oil change equipment as a condition of your slip rental agreement.
Minimize Spills and Leaks from Machinery
- Use non-water-soluble grease on travelifts, forklifts, cranes, and winches.
- Place containment berms with containment volumes equal to 1.1 times the capacity of the fuel tank around fixed pieces of machinery that use oil and gas.
- Design containment areas with spigots to drain collected materials and dispose of all collected material appropriately.
- Place leak-proof drip pans beneath machinery. Empty the pans regularly, being conscientious to dispose of the material properly (uncontaminated oil and antifreeze may be recycled).
- Place machinery on an impervious surface. Place oil-absorbent pads under machinery.
- If possible, cover machinery with a roof to prevent rainwater from filling the containment area.