- Marina Management
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In the water
- Educate employees/boaters/contractors about cleaning methods that prevent the release of pollutants to waters. Post signs and hand out educational materials describing boat cleaning methods.
- Prohibit pressure washing over or in the water.
- Avoid in-the-water hull scraping and any abrasive process that occurs underwater that may remove anti fouling paint from the boat.
- Wash the boat hull above the waterline by hand. Detergents and cleaning compounds used for washing boats should be phosphate-free and biodegradable and amounts used should be kept to a minimum.
- Sell environmentally sensitive cleaning products in your marina store.
- Discourage the use of traditional sudsing cleaners that must be rinsed off and discourage the use of detergents containing ammonia, sodium hypochlorite, chlorinated solvents, petroleum distillates or lye.
- Plug scuppers to contain dust and debris.
- Incorporate guidelines for boat maintenance into slip leasing agreements.
- Encourage the owner to remove the boat from the water for maintenance.
- Encourage the use of sponges or soft towels to clean the boat hull on a regular basis.
Out of the water
- Collect all maintenance debris. Clean work areas after completing each operation or at the end of the day – whichever comes first. Segregate debris if possible and dispose of properly.
- Contain and properly dispose of rinse water/paint chips from boats washed on upland areas.
- Designate work area so marina has a sense of order and staff can monitor the area for potential environmental problems
- Perform all major repairs – such as stripping, fiberglassing, and spray painting – in designated areas.
- Locate maintenance areas as far from the water as possible so stormwaer runoff will have the maximum amount of time and distance to be filtered
- Vessel maintenance areas should have an impervious surface (i.e. asphalt or cement) and, where practical, a roof. Sheltering the area from rain will prevent stormwater from carrying debris into surface waters.
- If asphalt or cement is not practical, perform work over filter fabric or over canvas or plastic tarps. Filter fabric will retain paint chips and other debris while allowing water to pass through. Tarps may be potentially re-used multiple times.
- Establish a schedule for inspecting and cleaning stormwater systems. Remove paint chips, dust, sediment, and other debris. Clean oil/water separators.
- Prohibit major maintenance or repair work outside the designated maintenance areas.
- Clearly mark work areas with signs, i.e., Maintenance Area for Painting
- Post signs and distribute materials describing best management practices that boat owners and contractors must follow, i.e., Use Tarps to Collect Debris.
- Develop, initiate and maintain procedures for managing requests to use the workspace, to move boats to and from the site, and to insure the use of BMPs.
- Surround the maintenance area with a berm or retaining wall.
Minimize Impacts of Painting
- Recommend to your customers antifouling paints containing the minimum amount of toxin necessary for the expected conditions.
- Avoid soft ablative paints.
- Use water-based paints whenever practical.
- Stay informed about antifouling products, like Teflon, silicone, polyurethane, and wax that have limited negative impacts.
- Store boats out of the water, where feasible, to eliminate the need for antifouling paints.
Laws for pressure wash wastewater treatment vary by state. See below information on stormwater and contact
your state to determine what plans, permits, and treatment options are required.
- By law (Clean Water Act) all pollutants must be removed from wash water before it may be discharged. At a minimum, allow large particles to settle out. More thorough treatment involves filtration or chemical or physical techniques to treat the rinse water:
- Use filtration devices such as screens, filter fabrics, oil/water separators, sand filters, and hay bales to remove particles;
- Chemical treatment relies upon the addition of some type of catalyst to cause the heavy metals and paint solids to settle out of the water
- Discharge treated wash water to surface water if it contains no pollutants. If detergents were used, the waste water must be directed into a sewer system.
- Collect debris. Have your waste hauler characterize the waste and bring it to a facility authorized to manage municipal or industrial solid waste, provided that, if the waste is hazardous, the amount generated is less than 220 pounds per month or less than this amount is accumulated at any time.
- Pressure wash over a bermed, impermeable surface that allows the waste water to be contained and filtered to remove particulates and solids.
- Where practical, use a regular garden-type hose and a soft cloth.
- Reuse the wash water. For example, recycle it through the power washing system (a closed water recycling operation) or use it to irrigate landscaped portions of the marina. The recycled water may be treated with an ozone generator to reduce odors.
- Use brushes and rollers whenever possible.
- Reduce paint overspray and solvent emissions by minimizing the use of spray equipment and only spraying in an enclosed area.
- Prohibit spray painting on or near the water.
- Use spray equipment with a high transfer efficiency. Tools such as high-volume, low-pressure (HVLP) spray guns direct more paint onto the work surface than conventional spray guns. Air-atomizer and gravity-feed guns are other types of highly efficient spray equipment.
- Limit in-water painting jobs to small jobs. Any substantial painting should be done on land, in the vessel maintenance area, and/or over ground cloth.
- Mix paints, solvents, and reducers in a designated area. It should be indoors or under a shed and should be far from the shore.
- Keep records of paint use to show where too much paint was mixed for a job. Use the information to prevent over mixing in the future.
- Handle Solvents Carefully: Store open containers of usable solvents as well as waste solvents, rags, and paints in covered, UL-listed, or Factory approved containers.
- Hire a licensed waste hauler to recycle or dispose of used solvents.
- Use soy-based solvents and other similar products with no or low volatility.
- Order your spray-painting jobs to minimize coating changes. Fewer changes mean less frequent purging of the spray system. Order your work light to dark.
- Allow solids to settle out of used strippers and thinners so you can reuse solvents.
- Do not let dust from sanding fall onto the ground or water or become airborne.
- Conduct shore-side sanding in the hull maintenance area or over a drop cloth.
- Collect debris. Have your waste hauler characterize the waste and bring it to a facility authorized to manage municipal or industrial solid waste, provided that, if the waste is hazardous, the amount generated is 220 pounds per month or less.
- Invest in vacuum sanders and grinders and require tenants and contractors to use vacuum sanders. Rent or loan the equipment to them.
- Restrict or prohibit sanding on the water to the greatest extent practical. When unavoidable, use a vacuum sander and keep the dust out of the water.
- Prohibit uncontained blasting. Perform abrasive blasting in the vessel maintenance area within a structure or under a plastic tarp enclosure. Do not allow debris to escape from the enclosure.
- Avoid dust entirely by using a stripper that allows the paint to be peeled off. These products are applied like large bandages, allowed to set, and are then stripped off. When the strips are removed, the paint is lifted from the hull. Dust and toxic fumes are eliminated.
- Investigate alternatives to traditional media blasting. Hydro blasting and mechanical peeling essentially eliminate air quality problems. Debris must still be collected, however. Consider using a filter cloth ground cover.
- Perform all engine repair/maintenance in the designated work area NOT over bare ground or water
- Store engines and engine parts under cover on an impervious surface like asphalt or concrete.
- Use drip pans when handling any type of liquid. Use separate drip pans for each fluid to avoid mixing. Recycle the collected fluid.
- Use funnels to transfer fluids prior to disposal.
- Clean engine repair areas regularly using dry cleanup methods, i.e., capture petroleum spills with oil absorbent pads.
- Use dry pre-cleaning methods, such as wire brushing.
- Adopt alternatives to solvent-based parts washers such as aqueous- based or bioremediating systems that take advantage of microbes to digest petroleum. Bioremediating systems are self contained; there is no effluent. The cleaning fluid is a mixture of detergent and water. Microbes are added periodically to eat the hydrocarbons.
- Prohibit the practice of hosing down the shop floor.
- Use propylene glycol antifreeze for all systems. It is much less toxic than ethylene glycol antifreeze. Sell this item in your store.
- Add stabilizers to fuel to prevent degradation. Stabilizers are available for gasoline and diesel fuels and for crankcase oil. These products protect engines by preventing corrosion and the formation of sludge, gum, and varnish. Also, the problem of disposing of stale fuel in spring is eliminated.
- Be sure fuel tanks are 85-90 percent full to prevent flammable fumes from accumulating and to minimize the possibility of condensation leading to corrosion. Do not fill the tank more than 90% full if you have an external overflow vent. The fuel will expand as it warms in the springtime; fuel will spill out the vent line of a full inboard tank.
- Use the highest rated octane recommended by the engine manufacturer; premium fuels are more stable than regular.
- Be sure the gas cap seals tightly.
- Promote reusable canvas or recyclable plastic covers. Some manufacturers will clean and store canvas covers during the boating season.
- Recycle used plastic covers.